The most basic, I think, is the pop-up caravan. This is a lightweight trailer, easily towed by almost any vehicle, even smaller cars. The roof-like tent expands from a hard base. Fun to use, it will go almost anywhere and is a great introduction to VR camping.
A travel trailer is a rigid-sided design typically pulled by trucks or SUVs using a bumper hitch. There are many different floor plans available. Nearly all modern travel trailers will include a bathroom/toilet, a kitchen/kitchen area, a bed, and a dining area. Length can be from about 16 feet to over 35 feet. As the travel trailer gets longer, it also becomes heavier, determining the size of the tow vehicle that will be needed. Travel trailers are popular with families with young children who no longer have pop-up trailers.
There are several variations of travel trailers. Some have wall and floor sections that slide out (electrically) to expand the floor plan. This is called a sliding or pop-up exit.
There is also a type of travel trailer called a toy carrier. Very similar to a regular travel trailer, but with large “garage” doors on the back or sides to allow the transport and storage of toys, motorbikes, ATVs, golf carts, etc.
There are also teardrop-shaped campgrounds. This is a vintage design. It usually has a small bed for one or two people (which is outside the weather) and storage for general supplies and kitchen utensils. A teardrop caravan can be towed by smaller vehicles and often a larger motorbike.
Grandpa travel trailers are called fifth-wheel trailers. These trailers don’t use a bumper but rather a type of hitch called a fifth wheel that often attaches to the back of larger pickup trucks or small trucks, or even semi-trailers.
Actual fifth-wheel trailers are generally quite large, often over 40 feet long. This is an excellent unit. They can include many items: fully equipped kitchens, entertainment centers, electric fireplaces, washing machines and dryers, multiple beds, and much more. The fifth wheel will generally have its power plant. There are also toy carrier models with many different floor plans.
The type is built on a truck chassis, which maintains the cabin and appearance of the truck. They can be complemented by a basic design or a more luxurious interior. The smallest Class C, sometimes called a mini-RV, is usually between 20 and 28 feet. Class C’s normal maximum is around 40 feet. It can be equipped with a stove and fridge, bathroom, dining area, various sleeping areas, and lots of storage space.
The type of RV is built on a van chassis. Usually shorter, they are still available in various configurations. Class B must have a water system in some states, typically a sink or shower, refrigerator, cooking system, heating, and toilet.
I am adding this detail because the vehicle license and the type of driving license required to operate the vehicle vary from state to state. Class B may be taxed differently from similar vans that are not designed for use as caravans.
In mobile homes, licensing often doesn’t make sense. In my case, my bike weighs less than 18,000 pounds but has air brakes, so it is permitted (taxed) as a passenger vehicle, but I need to have Class B (commercial driving license or CDL) with an air reserve brake. )
This motorhome is built on a commercial truck chassis. In many cases, this represents the ultimate in RV luxury (although a fifth-wheel trailer can be equipped in the same way). Usually, the length of these motor homes ranges from 20 feet to 45 feet. This is the largest and heaviest RV model. I’ll also include bus conversions in the class A group. Bus conversion can add one more step in luxury.
This is a short course on RV types in the United States. I’m aware that in European countries and Australia there are different designations and conventions
There is much more that can be included. Can you say that I love camping?